Chromosomal abnormalities and other conditions Normal human cells have 46 chromosomes. Chromosomal abnormalities happen when there are missing or extra chromosomes or the chromosomes are altered in some way. There are many different types of chromosomal abnormalities, many of which cause physical and/or intellectual disability.
Living with autism spectrum disorder: building a support network Your extended family and friends are key elements in your informal support network. The best way to build this network is to help family and friends learn about your child's autism spectrum disorder (ASD) . This is especially important in the early days after diagnosis.
Aggressive behaviour, self-injury and autism spectrum disorder Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) don't necessarily express anger, fear, anxiety or frustration in the same way as other children. They can sometimes express these feelings through aggressive behaviour towards other children. Sometimes they're aggressive towards themselves, which is called self-injurious behaviour.
About stimming and autism spectrum disorder Stimming - or self-stimulatory behaviour - is repetitive or unusual body movement or noises. Many children and teenagers with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) stim and might keep stimming throughout their lives. They use stimming to manipulate their environment to produce stimulation, or because they have trouble with imagination and creativity and can't think of other things to do, like pretend play.
Why confidence is important for children and teenagers Children and teenagers who are confident can cope better when things go wrong. They're less likely to feel afraid in new or unexpected situations. But children and teenagers with low self-confidence can be upset when they face difficulties, and might be less likely to try new things.
Periods and girls with autism spectrum disorder Your daughter with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) will go through lots of changes in puberty, just as other girls do. One of the most significant milestones is her first period. It's a sign that the physical changes in her body have only a couple of years to go.
Conversations and teenagers with autism spectrum disorder Your teenage child with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) will come across many situations when he needs to have a conversation - for example, with a friend, shop assistant or GP. But conversations have unspoken rules, which teenagers with ASD often find difficult to understand.
Thinking about having another child? If you have a child with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), thinking about having another child can stir up many emotions - from excitement to worry. For example, you might: worry that you'll have another child with ASD be OK about having another child with ASD feel guilty for wanting a child without ASD feel excited at the thought of having a child with typical development worry that you won't have enough time for your child with ASD if you have a newborn worry that you won't have enough support to raise more than one child with ASD worry about the impact of another child with ASD on your family relationships.
About discipline Discipline is helping your child learn how to behave - as well as how not to behave. It works best when you have a warm and loving relationship with your child. Discipline and discipline strategies are positive. They're built on talking and listening. They guide all children towards: knowing what behaviour is appropriate - whether it's at home, a friend's house, child care, preschool or school managing their own behaviour and developing important skills like the ability to get along well with others, now and as they get older learning to understand, manage and express their feelings.
Obsessions, rituals, routines and autism spectrum disorder Many children and teenagers with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have obsessions, routines or rituals. Some children have all of these things, and others have only one or two. Obsessions All children have favourite toys, activities and topics of conversation, but for children and teenagers with ASD, these interests are often more intense and focused than for typically developing children.
Bodies and body parts: teaching children with ASD If you teach your child the names for 'private' body parts at the same time as other body parts, he'll learn that these are body parts too, just like toes and arms. It's best to use formal terms like 'vulva' or 'penis' to teach private body parts. But it's also a good idea to teach your child other informal names for body parts, which she might hear at school - for example, 'boobs' for breasts.
Challenging behaviour in children and teenagers with autism spectrum disorder All children can behave in ways that parents find difficult or challenging to manage. But children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are more likely to do so. Children and teenagers with ASD might: refuse or ignore requests behave in socially inappropriate ways, like taking their clothes off in public be aggressive or have tantrums engage in self-stimulatory behaviour, like rocking or hand-flicking hurt themselves or other children - for example, by head-banging or biting.
Communication and autism spectrum disorder: the basics Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can find it hard to relate to and communicate with other people. They might be slower to develop language, have no language at all, or have significant difficulties in understanding or using spoken language.
Social skills and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) Social skills will help your child with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) know how to act in different social situations - from talking to her grandparents when they visit to playing with friends at school. Social skills can help your child make friends, learn from others and develop hobbies and interests.
Autism spectrum disorder and wandering Nearly half of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) try to wander or run off, even when there's an adult supervising them. Sometimes children with ASD wander aimlessly. Other times they want to get somewhere in particular, or they bolt suddenly to get away from something.
How stress related to autism spectrum disorder affects families Family members experience and respond to stress in different ways. There's no one right way of feeling or responding to your child with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). But it does help to be understanding of each other's feelings. Feelings and stress It's normal to feel a range of emotions.
Fussy eating habits and autism spectrum disorder Some children and teenagers with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are fussy eaters and will eat only a limited range of food. If your child's diet is severely limited - for example, he eats only mushy foods - he might not be getting all the nutrients he needs.
Why cooperation is important Cooperative behaviour helps children succeed at school, in relationships with others and in extracurricular activities. It's also important for a happy and harmonious life. Cooperation involves several important skills like sharing, taking turns and following instructions from others.
Augmentative communication and autism spectrum disorder If your child has autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and difficulties with language or communication, augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) systems can add to his existing ways of communicating, including his speech, gestures or writing. They can also give your child new and different ways of communicating.
Changing routines and your child with autism spectrum disorder Children and teenagers with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often like routines and rituals and don't like change. This means your child with ASD might need help to manage changes to her daily routine. Common changes or new situations might include: leaving the house having visitors at your house going somewhere new, like the dentist switching between toys, activities or tasks doing things in a different order - for example, having a bath at an unusual time eating new foods cancelling activities - for example, not going to the park because of bad weather.
Why appointments are hard for children with autism spectrum disorder Each child with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is different. But many children with ASD have social and communication difficulties, a preference for set routines, and sensory sensitivities. This means that appointments in unfamiliar places with unfamiliar people are often difficult for them.